Anti-NMDA & Encephalitis
Organization & Website Links
News Articles & Media
- From Demonic Posession to Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis; Mad in America; Nesrin Shaheen; August 2016
- The Daily Struggle of Living with Extreme Fatigue; David Robson; August 2016
- When the Body Attacks the Mind; The Atlantic; July/August 2016
- Could Your Loved One Have Autoimmune Encephalitis?; Neuroscience blog, Penn Medicine; June, 13, 2016
- Could Some Cases of Schizophrenia Be Caused by an Autoimmune Disease?; Healthline News; February 20, 2014
- When the Brain is Under Attack; Boston Globe; May 27, 2013
- Autoimmune Encephalitis: The Brain Disease That Makes People Seem Crazy; Daily Health News; March 15, 2013
- Mystery Brain Disease Strikes Women in the US; Newser; February 9, 2013
- Brain on Fire: An Interview With Susannah Cahalan on Anti–NMDA Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis; Psychiatric Times; January 23, 2013
- Autoimmune Encephalopathy; Medscape; 2011
- Encephalitis Society; Encephalitis in Adults, A Guide
- What Brain Injury Survivors Want You to Know; Brainline.org
Books & Other Resources
- Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Educational Drawings; YouTube; Roberto Lasso; June 2016
AboutAnti–NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) antibody disease is an acute form of encephalitis that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. It is caused by an autoimmune reaction, mediated by autoantibodies that target NMDA receptors in the brain. The symptoms typically progress from flu-like symptoms to neurological and behavioral effects that often include agitation, paranoia, psychosis, and violent behaviors. Other common initial manifestations include seizures and bizarre physical movements, impaired cognition, memory deficits, and speech problems. As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and medically urgent, and often include autonomic dysfunction, hypoventilation, cerebellar ataxia, hemiparesis, loss of consciousness, or catatonia.
OccurrenceThe symptoms usually appear psychiatric in nature, which may confound the differential diagnosis. In many cases, this leads to a misdiagnosis and, therefore, the current overall incidence of the condition is unknown.
Treatment & Prognosis
If patients are found to have a tumor, the long-term prognosis is generally better and the chance of relapse is much lower. This is because the tumor can be removed surgically, thus eradicating the source of auto-antibodies. In general, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is believed to improve patient outcomes.The recovery process from anti-NMDA encephalitis can take many months. Treatments include:
The year anti-NMDA was first officially named and categorized (by Dr. Josep Dalmau)
World Disease Maps
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